To understand the general strategies to be applied in the design of the built environment, climate must be understood and incorporated as part of the conditioners of the design of buildings. But architecture must respond not only to actual but also future conditions in a warming and changing world.

Southern Europe or the European Mediterranean Region is a well-defined region with similar climatic conditions, impacts and possibilities of adaptation to climate change, although with important differences that need to be understood. These differences are mainly based on the actual and future climate severity of the seasons which will have a direct repercussion in energy consumption to provide an adequate indoor environment to residential buildings.

Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Chapter First Online: 10 February This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Barriopedro, D.

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The hot summer of redrawing the temperature record map of Europe. Science,— CrossRef Google Scholar. Cartalis, C. Climatic change in the built environment in temperate climates with emphasis on the Mediterranean Area.

Boemi, O. Santamouris Eds. Energy efficiency and built environment in temperate climates pp. Berlin: Springer. Google Scholar. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe An indicator-based report. Giorgi, F. Climate change hot-spots. Geophysical Research Letters, 33 81—4. Gualdi, S. Future climate projections. Tubiana Eds. Huang, J. Final Report. Jentsch, M. Transforming existing weather data for worldwide locations to enable energy and building performance simulation under future climates.

Renewable Energy, 55, — Kovats R. Climate change Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: Regional aspects.

Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Europe— Metzger, M. A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe.The Mediterranean area has quite a unique character that results both from their complex morphology and socio-economic conditions.

It is indeed surrounded by various and complex topography channelling regional winds Mistral, Tramontane, Bora, Meltem, Sirocco than defined local climates and from which numerous rivers feed the Mediterranean Sea. Many small-size islands limit the low-level air flow and its coastline is particularly complex. Strong land—sea contrast, land—atmosphere feedback, sea breeze, meso-scale cyclones and medicanes, coastal upwelling, intense air—sea coupling and aerosol—radiation interaction are also among the regional characteristics to take into account when dealing with the Mediterranean climate modeling.

In addition, the region features a semi-enclosed sea with an active regional thermohaline circulation. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean only by Gibraltar strait and surrounded by very urbanized littorals. This naturally led the climate and ocean modelling community to develop high-resolution stand-alone and fully-coupled climate models to study this specific area.

The history of the regional climate models dedicated to the Mediterranean study is now a more than year long story. At that time, coupled RCMs were involving a high-resolution representation and a high-frequency coupling of four components of the Mediterranean regional climate system, that is to say atmosphere, land, river and ocean and were called regional climate system models RCSM.

Evaluating high-resolution and multi-component regional climate models requires to re-think the notion of reference datasets. Indeed, the reference datasets commonly used for climate model evaluation are often not suitable in this case for various reasons: 1 they do not address the right spatial and temporal scales, 2 they do not allow the evaluation of the fluxes at the interfaces between the climate system components, 3 they do not take into account carefully the complex land—sea mask of the region, or iv their temporal consistency is not good enough to study long-term variability.

Besides, the evaluation of the ocean component of the RCSMs at climate scale is a real challenge as ocean data are often sparse and not homogeneous in time. This is done for a large number of parameters including extreme-related indices for the atmosphere. They focus on the decadal variability and show an overall good model behaviour for both parameters and no clear difference between both ensembles. It is worth noting that RCMs show an excessive production of low precipitation events leading to underestimate the dry day frequency and the dry spell length.

However, note that the obtained conclusions depend on the reference datasets used for evaluation. They conclude that the model spread is large for the mean value of the various components of the heat and salt budgets, for the vertical heat and salt transfers, and for the trends in the heat and salt contents.

Besides the models agree well on the interannual heat variability, in this case, being close to the observations.

Those model intercomparison studies have helped to elucidate deficiencies in model configurations and to improve the design of the new ocean simulations. Proving the added-value of the new RCM tools is a long-term effort of the community. This discrepancy is probably due to the use of different reference datasets. Besides model evaluation, Med-CORDEX regional climate models can also support studies oriented to better understand regional climate phenomena and in particular their climate variability.

This is especially true for complex, fast, oceanic, extreme or coupled phenomena that are not well captured by observation-based datasets especially when looking for long and temporally homogeneous datasets. They also warn that cyclone characteristics detected in a model are strongly dependent on the detection algorithm used. Another warning concerning the study of cyclones using RCMs is given by Sanchez-Gomez and Somot who illustrate the strong impact of the regional climate model internal variability on the cyclone tracks at various spatio-temporal scales.A hierarchy of numerical sea models covering the large scale Mediterranean basin, the central Mediterranean area and local zones in given Tunisian ecosystems is developed.

Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration. Conference paper.

Potential Effects of Climate Change on Slope Stability in Unsaturated Pyroclastic Soils

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Alioua M, Harzallah A. Bull Inst Nat Sci Tech. Google Scholar. Bull Amer Meteo Soc. CrossRef Google Scholar. Future Climate Projections. In: Navarra A, Tubiana L editors. Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean, vol. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands; b. Mass exchange at the Strait of Gibraltar in response to tidal and lower frequency forcing as simulated by a Mediterranean Sea model. Tellus A. Mellor GL, Yamada T.

Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev Geophys Space Phys. Personalised recommendations. Cite paper How to cite? ENW EndNote. Buy options.Landslide Science and Practice pp Cite as. Landslides are one of the most dangerous natural hazards since they degrade the productivity of soils, harm people, and damage property.

Slope failures are caused by a combination of several factors; in unsaturated granular deposits which are often susceptible to rapid catastrophic landslides induced by rainwater infiltration, climatic conditions play a fundamental role. Therefore, global warming due to the greenhouse effect and changes in precipitation and evaporation patterns might affect future landslide hazard.

The paper reports the results of a complex investigation in a sample site, including in situ suction and precipitation monitoring, soil characterization and numerical simulations which allowed us to focus on some aspects of climate change on slope behaviour. The authors wish to thank Prof.

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Greco and Prof. Olivares for their suggestions and constructive criticisms, Prof. Picarelli for his contribution in coordinating the research, Dr E. Bucchignani and Dr M. Montesarchio CIRA for their help in climatic simulations, prof. Olivares and Dr V. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Chapter First Online: 02 February This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

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Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Prof. Hydraulic properties of porous media. Hydrology Paper No. Nat Hazards. In: Evangelista A, Picarelli L edsProceedings of the 2nd international symposium on the geotechnics of hard soils-soft rocks, vol 3, Napoli, pp — Google Scholar.

Damiano E A study on climatologic aspects for forecasting of shallow landslides in pyroclastic soils due to climatic change. Damiano E, Olivares L The role of infiltration processes in steep slope stability of pyroclastic granular soils: laboratory and numerical investigation. Eng Geol ——12 Google Scholar.

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A Wiley-Interscience Publication. Gardner WR Some steady state solutions of the un-saturated moisture flow equation with application to evaporation from water table. Greco R, Guida A, Damiano E, Olivares L Soil water content and suction monitoring in model slopes for shallow flowslides early warning applications.

Phys Chem Earth, Elsevier Ltd. Springer, Dordrecht Google Scholar. Mitchell TD, Jones PD An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high resolution grids. Monteith JL Evaporation and the environment. Olivares L Static liquefaction: an hypothesis for explaining transition from slide to flows in pyroclastic soils.

Proceeding of TC11 Landslide conference on Transition from slide to flow — mechanisms and remedial measures. Trabzon, Turkey Google Scholar.The recent twentieth century and future twenty-first century climate evolution in the Mediterranean region is analyzed in relation to annual mean global surface temperature change. These datasets to large extent agree that in the twentieth century: a Mediterranean regional and global temperatures have warmed at a similar rate until the s and b decadal variability determines a large uncertainty that prevents to identify long-term links between precipitation in the Mediterranean region and global temperature.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Whenever multiple simulations of the same model are available, the reference r1i1p1 has been used.

Barkhordarian A, Bhend JH, von Storch H Consistency of observed near surface temperature trends with climate change projections over the Mediterranean.

Clim Dyn 38 — Barkhordarian A, von Storch H, Bhend J The expectation of future precipitation change over the Mediterranean region is different from what we observe. Clim Dyn 40 — Reg Environ Chang 11 S1 — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Google Scholar. Q J Roy Meteor Soc :1— Clim Chang 81 S1 — Geophys Res Lett 34 11 :L Earth-Sci Rev — Giorgi F Climate change hot-spots. Geophys Res Lett 33 8 :L Glob Planet Chang 63 — Glob Chang Biol 16 3 — Springer, Dordrecht, pp 53— Int J Climatol 34 3 — Water Resour Manag 21 5 — Reg Environ Chang 14 2 — Tellus 63 1 — Trends Ecol Evol 25 4 — In: Lionello P ed The climate of the mediterranean region: from the past to the future.Once an evaluation has been successfully created it will have the following properties.

That is, each measure is computed with respect to each class, then the computed values are averaged to get the average measure. You can read more on macro vs. The full set of matrices is used to construct the rest of the measures. The first threshold is always nil, indicating the case where everything is classified positively. Ranking Measures measure the quality of the ranking provided by the classifier, as estimated from the performance at different operating thresholds.

The canonical curve of this sort is the ROC curve, which shows the false positive rate and the recall at each threshold. Note that the last threshold is nil, indicating the case where every is classified positively (the curve thresholds are sorted in the opposite order from the list of confusion matrices to maintain a non-decreasing ordering for the x-axis values of the curves). A detailed result object for regression models has the following properties: Time series evaluations compare time series predictions (forecasts) against a test dataset containing true future time series values.

For each field in the test dataset corresponding to the objective fields in the time series model, BigML computes the point predictions using each of the field's ets models (including the trivial ets models), with a forecast horizon equal to the number of rows in the test dataset. A result object for time series models has the following properties: A detailed result object for time series models has the following properties: Creating an evaluation is a process that can take just a few seconds or a few days depending on the size of the dataset used as input and on the workload of BigML's systems.

The evaluation goes through a number of states until its fully completed. Through the status field in the evaluation you can determine when the evaluation has been fully processed. Once you delete an evaluation, it is permanently deleted.

If you try to delete an evaluation a second time, or an evaluation that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response. However, if you try to delete an evaluation that is being used at the moment, then BigML. To list all the evaluations, you can use the evaluation base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent evaluations will be returned.

You can get your list of evaluations directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links. You can also paginate, filter, and order your evaluations.

It is intended as an import for executable scripts. You can read the WhizzML Reference Manual for more information. You can also list all of your libraries. See WhizzML Reference Manual for more information. Once a library has been successfully created it will have the following properties. This is the date and time in which the library was updated with microsecond precision. Library Status Creating a library is a process that can take just a few seconds or a few minutes depending on the workload of BigML's systems.

The library goes through a number of states until its fully completed. Through the status field in the library you can determine when the library has been fully processed and ready to be used.

Climate Conditions and Future Scenarios in Southern Europe

Once you delete a library, it is permanently deleted. If you try to delete a library a second time, or a library that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response. However, if you try to delete a library that is being used at the moment, then BigML. To list all the libraries, you can use the library base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent libraries will be returned.

You can get your list of libraries directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links. A listing result includes all libraries in both production and development modes.

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It also includes read-only system library created by BigML. You can also list all of your scripts.Yeast thrives in an acidic environment, which promotes better volume in your loaves.

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Ascorbic acid also acts as a natural preservative, increasing the shelf-life of your bread. Most health food stores sell powdered ascorbic acid. Connie Sarros uses this ingredient in bread recipes found in her excellent gluten-free cookbook, Wheat-Free, Gluten-Free Reduced-Calorie Cookbook.

It really works and adds moisture to gluten-free bread recipes. Gluten-Free Irish Soda Bread with Added MayonnaiseOlive oil is a healthy cooking oil that adds wonderful flavor to bread. Another benefit of using olive oil in bread recipes is that it adds moisture, a tender texture, and extends shelf-life of your gluten-free bread.

Gluten-Free Rosemary Walnut Bread Prepared with Lots of Healthy Olive OilNote: You can omit the fresh rosemary and walnuts in this gluten-free bread recipe for a wonderful, crusty everyday sandwich bread. Pectin is frequently derived from citrus fruit and apples and is a familiar ingredient in jelly and jam recipes. Pectin also promotes moisture retention in bread and can be used as a vegan substitute in gluten-free bread recipes. Look for citrus or apple pectin at health food stores or at grocery stores where jam and jelly making ingredients are kept.

Expandex adds wheat-like texture to gluten-free bread. It can be added directly to your mixes or you can use a mix like Jules' Gluten-Free All Purpose Flour Mix which contains Expandex. My recipe for Gluten-Free Honey Buckwheat English Muffins is made with Jules Gluten-Free Flour Mix and this is my family's favorite gluten-free "bread" recipes.

Learn More About Expandex and How to Use it in Gluten-Free RecipesGo buy one of these priceless, yet inexpensive gadgets. A digital, or "instant read" thermometer will save you lots of frustration because it lets you easily measure the internal temperature of your bread.

When the internal temperature is approximately 206 degrees F it's done. No more gooey loaves - no more dried out loaves. Top Instant Read Kitchen ThermometersLook for lidded Pullman loaf pans at King Arthur Flour or check out this smaller Pullman loaf pan at Kitchenworks.

An easy way to create a good environment for gluten-free bread to rise is to turn your oven to 200 degrees F. When it reaches this temperature, turn the oven off and place a shallow baking pan partially filled with hot water in the oven. Lightly cover the loaf pan with a damp towel and place in the oven for 20 to 30 minutes or until the dough rises to the top of the loaf pan.

This method really does speed up the time it takes for gluten-free bread to rise. Just be sure to carefully watch the process so that your bread does rise over the top of the pan before baking. Work With Room Temperature IngredientsYeast loves a warm environment and bread will rise more quickly and completely when ingredients are at room temperature rather than cold.

The relation between climate change in the Mediterranean region and global warming

The Waste-free LunchboxIt has been estimated that on average a school-age child using a disposable lunch generates 67 pounds of waste per school year.

That equates to 18,760 pounds of lunch waste for just one average-size elementary school. If you're like us, you're always on the lookout for small changes that make a real difference in the world, and packing a waste-free lunch is once such change that's easy to make.

If you walk around at lunchtime and take a good look at the lunches our children bring to school, here's what the typical lunch will look like: In this scenario very little trash is generated because foods are bought in bulk or in larger packages. The packaging is left at home for reuse or recycling. Food waste also decreases because with a reusable lunch container, children can re-pack uneaten food instead of dumping it, packaging and all, into the school trash can.

Education is the first step in the transition to a waste-free lunch. Talk to your children about why the school has decided to institute a waste-free lunch program. Provide them with age-appropriate information about the negative impact of a disposable lunch.

Below is a list of suggestions that will help build communication and foster understanding. Read this list with your children. Ask them to circle the foods they'd like to see in their lunchboxes.

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